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[by:www.tingvoa.com - VOA英语网] [00:00.00]如果你喜欢voa英语网(www.tingvoa.com),请介绍给更多的同学哦 [00:02.09]发明 [00:04.18]READING WHAT WILL YOU THINK OF NEXT? [00:06.41]阅读 下一步你会想什么? [00:08.65]Throughout history,great thinkers have used their creativity [00:11.57]综观历史,伟在的思想家动用他们的 [00:14.50]and imagination to change to world. [00:16.43]创造能力和想象力来改变世界。 [00:18.36]How do they come up with ideas for new inventions? [00:20.73]他们如何产生能带来新发明的想法? [00:23.09]Thinkers who have changed the world do not seem to have much in common. [00:26.06]改变世界的思想家似乎有很多共同之处。 [00:29.02]They come from different cultures and have different backgrounds, [00:31.56]他们来自不同文化,背景也不同, [00:34.09]and only some of them did well at school. [00:36.11]而且只有部分人在学校表现出色。 [00:38.14]Creativity is not about getting hight test scores, [00:40.62]创造性并不意味着考试得高分、 [00:43.10]having a hight IQ or being smart. [00:45.28]智商高或者聪明。 [00:47.46]Instead,it seems that creative thinking, [00:49.79]相反的,创造性思维- [00:52.11]which is one of the most highly valued skills in society, [00:54.65]社会上评价最高的一种技能 [00:57.18]is a matter of habits. [00:58.91]似乎是习惯产生的。 [01:00.63]By thinking about the way we think and practising good thinking strategies, [01:03.76]思考我们如何想问题并且训练一些好的思维策略。 [01:06.90]we can become more creative. [01:08.73]我们会变得更有创造性。 [01:10.56]THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX [01:12.32]走出局限思维 [01:14.08]Knowledge and learning are important if we want to be successful, [01:16.80]我们要成功,知识和学问很重要, [01:19.52]but we must also realise that what we know [01:21.88]但我们必须认识到,我们所知道的以及已经学会的会限制我们的思维。 [01:24.24]and what we have learnt may also limit our thinking. [01:29.21]To"think outside the box"is to try new ways to solve a problem. [01:32.59]“走出局限思维”就是要用新的思路解决问题。 [01:35.97]Inventors often rephrase a problem to allow for creative solutions [01:39.10]发明家为了得到创造性结果,经常用新的措辞解释问题, [01:42.22]and also try"impossible"or "crazy"solutions. [01:45.09]也尝试“不可能的”或“疯狂的”解决办法。 [01:47.96]If we look only for the correct answer [01:50.03]如果我们仅仅寻找正确答案 [01:52.09]and reject ideas that do not provide a complete answer, [01:54.93]而不接受没有提供完整答案的观点, [01:57.76]we may get stuck. [01:59.38]我们会感到困惑。 [02:01.00]Partial solutios,and even failures, [02:03.08]部分答案、而且甚至是失败 [02:05.15]give us more information and clues that help us move towards a better solution. [02:08.43]给我们提供更多的信息和线索,有助于我们得到更完美的解答。 [02:11.71]Creative thinking is a conscious effort to break away from old thought patterns [02:14.99]创造性思维是为了探索新的可能性而摆脱旧的思维模式的有意识努力。 [02:18.27]in order explore new possibilities. [02:22.52]TAKE ANOTHER LOOK AT IT [02:24.14]再度观察 [02:25.76]Good solutions and new ideas are often the result of a change in perception. [02:29.04]好的解决办法和新的想法常常是观念改变的结果。 [02:32.32]By looking at a problem in as many ways as possible, [02:35.00]以尽可能多的方法看问题, [02:37.68]creative thinkers can find solutions that would otherwise remain invisible. [02:41.06]创造性思想家能发现很可能隐藏的解决方法。 [02:44.44]As with thinking outside the box, [02:46.52]就像“走出局限思维”一样, [02:48.59]the process includes a series of different attempts and several false starts. [02:51.82]这一过和包括一系列不同的尝试和错误的开头。 [02:55.05]Each new way of looking at a situation improves our understanding [02:58.08]每一次用新的方法看待一个境况能加深理解, [03:01.11]and makes it easier to discover new possibilities. [03:03.59]使们更容易发现一些新的可能性。 [03:06.07]Great thinkers also like to make their ideas visible. [03:08.55]伟大的思想家总是喜欢让们们的想法看得见, [03:11.03]A drawing or a model will help you see thins that may otherwise remain hidden. [03:14.46]一幅图画或一个模型将帮你认清很可能隐藏的事物。 [03:17.88]MAKE CONNECTIONS [03:19.35]善于联系 [03:20.83]Every new thought or idea has to be connected to what we already know [03:24.00]每个新思想或观点要和我们已经知道的联系起来。 [03:27.18]Unfortunately,it is easy to limit the possibilities of a new idea [03:30.42]不幸的是,如果把它和我们先前所学到知识的一个方面联系起来, [03:33.66]by connecting it to only area of our previous knowledge. [03:36.48]就很容易限制一个新观点的各种可能性。 [03:39.30]Great thinkers are aware of this and try to combine new [03:42.13]伟大的思想家意识到这一点, [03:44.97]and old ideas in as many different ways as possible. [03:47.59]并尽量以各种不同的办法把新旧观点联系起来。 [03:50.22]They also try to make connections that may seem strange at first. [03:53.16]他们还尽量把起初看似不合理的观点联系起来。 [03:56.09]By comparing and connecting ideas and objects in new ways, [03:59.07]用新的方法把一些观点和实物进行对比和联系, [04:02.05]creative thinkers are able to think of new applications and solutions. [04:05.33]创造性思想家能够想出新的用途和解决办法。 [04:08.61]Many of the things that we use every day [04:10.83]我们每天使用的很多东西都是那些能把自已的观点 [04:13.05]were invented by someone who saw similarities [04:15.69]和世界上的实物和规律联系起来 [04:18.32]between his or her ideas and objects or systems in the world. [04:21.66]并看出相似之处的人发明的。 [04:24.99]KEEP TRYING [04:26.41]不断尝试 [04:27.83]Good ideas are no accident. [04:29.82]好的主意不是意外产生的。 [04:31.80]They are the result of a long process of trial and error. [04:34.44]他们是为断探索的漫长过程的结果。 [04:37.08]Most famous scientists and thinkers are very productive [04:39.81]大多数著名的科学家和思想家富有成效。 [04:42.54]and studies have shown that our most respected scientists [04:45.27]研究表明,最受尊敬的科学家不仅提出了 [04:48.00]produce not only some of the best ideas, [04:50.27]一些最好的观点。 [04:52.55]but also a great many bad ones. [04:54.83]而且也得出很多错误观点。 [04:57.12]Some of the greatest inventors forced themselves to develop new ideas [05:00.29]一些伟大的发明家尽管在疲惫或未能激发灵感的情况下 [05:03.46]even when they were tired or did not feel inspired. [05:05.95]也能强迫自已开发新观点。 [05:08.43]They all knew that for each new invention that works, [05:10.91]他们都知道,对于每次成办的发明, [05:13.39]there are at ten that do not. [05:15.45]至少有十次失败。 [05:17.52]If we want to develop our creativity, [05:19.60]如果我们想开发创造性, [05:21.67]we can try using some of the thining strategies of the great and famous. [05:24.70]可以尝试伟人和名人的一些思维策略。 [05:27.73]We may not be interested in becoming inventors, [05:30.16]也许我们对成为发明家没有兴趣, [05:32.59]but we probably all want to find new ways to improve our life. [05:35.62]但我们可能都想找到新的方法来提高生活。 [05:38.65]Who knows,perhaps your next thought will be a new idea that changes tha world. [05:42.37]谁会知道,也许你的下一个主意将会是改变世界的新观点。 [05:46.10]INTEGRATING SKILLS [05:49.32]综合技巧 [05:52.55]Reading ALL IN THE MIND:SCIENTIFIC METAPHORS [05:55.63]阅读 科学比喻方法 [05:58.71]It is certainly true that computers, [06:01.00]电脑、手机和数码相机已经成为我们日常生活的一部分, [06:03.28]cellphones and digital cameras have become part of our everyday life. [06:06.71]肯定是对的。 [06:10.13]Anywhere we ago,we can hear the ringing of a cellphone, [06:13.11]无论走到哪儿,我们能听到手机钤声、 [06:16.08]the tapping of a keyboard or the clicking of a mouse. [06:19.06]键盘的敲击声或点击鼠标的声音。 [06:22.04]We are said to be living in the "Information Age", [06:24.61]我们正生活在“信息化进代”、 [06:27.19]a time of new discoveries and great changes. [06:29.86]一个充满新的发现和巨大变化的时代。 [06:32.54]But is it really true that we are living in the "Information Age"? [06:35.78]但是我们真正生活在信息化时代吗? [06:39.02]Has our life changed that much? [06:41.24]我们的生活真的变化如些之大吗? [06:43.46]Many of the things we do with computers,such as typing and sending mail, [06:46.79]我们用电脑做的很多事情,像打字和发邮件, [06:50.12]are things that we also did before, [06:52.36]也是我们以前做过的。 [06:54.59]Has anything really changed except the tools we use? [06:57.52]除了我们使用的这些用段,有哪些事情真的发生了变化? [07:00.44]When we describe or talk about new inventions, [07:02.97]在描述或谈论新发现时, [07:05.51]we use words and ideas that we already know. [07:08.24]我们使用了已经知道的文字和观点。 [07:10.97]For example,when we want to explain how a computer works, [07:14.14]例如,当我们要解释电脑是怎样工作的, [07:17.32]we use words like"memory","store"and"cut and paste". [07:20.56]我们使用“存储器”,“储存”和“剪切和粘贴”。 [07:23.79]The words are useful,but they are not quite true. [07:26.58]这些词实用,但是它们也并不是很准确。 [07:29.36]A computer's "memory"is similar to human memory in some ways, [07:32.69]电脑的“存储器”在某些方面和人的记忆相似, [07:36.02]but it is also very different. [07:38.06]但那也不同。 [07:40.09]A computer does keep information in its memory, [07:42.67]电脑确实在存储器中储存信息, [07:45.24]but that is clearly different from other kinds of storage. [07:48.02]但那和其他种类的储存有明显的区别。 [07:50.80]We do cut and paste,but we don't use scissors or glue. [07:54.08]我们确实剪切和粘贴,但不用剪刀和胶水。 [07:57.36]Using familiar words makes it easier for us to understand and use a new tool, [08:01.24]使用熟悉的词使我们更容易理解和使用一种新工具, [08:05.12]but it may also make it more difficult for us to use the new invention in the best way. [08:08.95]但同时也有可能使我们觉得以最好的方式动用一种新发明更困难。 [08:12.77]After all,what makes a new invention such a wonderful thing [08:15.95]毕竟,使一个新的发明变得如些神奇的是 [08:19.12]is that it allows us to do something we could not do before. [08:22.01]它能让我们做我们以前不能做的事情。 [08:24.89]Science is not just about electronics and plastic; [08:27.68]科学并不是仅关于电子和塑料, [08:30.46]it is also about how we think about the world. [08:33.03]也包括我们怎样的思考世界。 [08:35.60]Now that we are developing new technology at such a high pace, [08:38.74]既然我们在高速开发新技术,新方法。 [08:41.87]the true challenge is to find new ways of using it. [08:44.75]真正的挑战是要找到运用它的新方法。 [08:47.62]How will we use computers in the future? [08:49.80]未来我们怎样使用电脑? [08:51.98]How will we use the Internet? [08:53.76]怎样使用因特网? [08:55.54]The real function will only be known [08:58.02]只有当我们找到一些新的办法来思考科技时, [09:00.50]once we discover new ways of thinking about the technology. [09:03.44]它的真正功能才能知道。 [09:06.38]Integrating skills [09:19.44]Reading Inventions [09:23.20]Computers taht use light instead of electricity, [09:28.06]"smart" clothes taht can make phone calls and play music, [09:33.81]house paints that change colour with the seasons, [09:38.53]e-paper and ads that speak to you [09:43.29]-the list of amazing new inventions that seem to be just around the corner [09:49.24]is long and inspiring. [09:53.32]How many of these new technologies will actually become reality remains to be seen, [10:00.45]but it is clear that the next fifty years will be exciting. [10:05.60]Here is a look at some of the new ideas that may shape our future. [10:11.55]Now you see it,Now you don't [10:15.50]Researchers in Japan [10:18.76]have invented a kind of paint that makes things invisible. [10:23.80]It may sound incredible, [10:27.36]but the new paint reflects light in such a way that the human eye is fooled. [10:33.60]The technology behind the paint is fairly simple: [10:38.17]instead of letting the light rays bounce back in the normal way, [10:43.74]the paint sends the light back to the source. [10:48.18]It is as if a basketball backboard was made [10:52.93]so that a ball thrown at an angle [10:56.77]would bounce right back at teh person throwing it. [11:01.45]The paint does not really make things disappear, [11:06.20]but by changing the way the light bounces [11:10.35]it does make it possible to "see through" objects. [11:16.10]The technology has many potential uses. [11:20.86]The paint could be used to make interesting clothes [11:25.01]and to help doctors see throught the skin of a patient [11:30.05]and thus be able to work better [11:34.02]It may also be used to hide things that we do not want others to see. [11:40.58]Don't touch that knife [11:43.82]Most of us probably hope that we will never have to face major surgery. [11:49.56]Even thought doctors are well-trained and modern [11:54.03]technology makes it possible to save lives, [11:58.58]many operations are still dangerous and painful. [12:03.04]Now,however,scientists believe [12:07.48]that they might be able to help doctors to cure patients with less risk. [12:13.54]A new and very small robot has been invented. [12:18.40]This robot can enter the human body through a small hole [12:23.86]so that it is no longer necessary to cut the patient. [12:28.83]Instead of using knives and other large tools, [12:33.40]doctors can use a computer to move the tiny robot around. [12:39.33]if the technology can be used on human beings, [12:43.98]operations will be safer and less painful. [12:48.94]That will never work,or will it? [12:53.20]The most exciting inventions are always the ones that have not yet been made. [12:58.87]The true challenge for any inventor is to dare to dream and believe [13:05.21]that what seems impossible today may one day become possible. [13:11.17]Among the many inventions that are being discussed by some scientists [13:16.73] are several that may seem ridiculous to us. [13:21.59]For example,one scientist is trying to build a device [13:27.16]that will allow information to enter the human body. [13:32.12]In early experiments, [13:35.36]the scientist was able to send sound into humans and dolphins, [13:41.00]with some success. [13:44.16]He is now working on sending visual information to the brain, [13:49.44]so that blind people could be able to "see". [13:54.72]The scientist believes that is may be possible to "learn" [14:00.18]by sending information to the brain. [14:04.33]Other inventors are trying to make something out of nothing. [14:09.06]One group of scientists [14:12.72]think that it may be possible to make energy from space itself. [14:18.59]According to their theories, [14:22.15]what we think of as empty space [14:26.51]does in fact sontain energy in the form of movement. [14:32.07]They describe space as true "perpetual motion", [14:37.14]that is,movement that never stops. [14:41.50]They claim that there are energy fields everywhere [14:45.94]--because of the laws of physics,there are always small movements everywhere. [14:52.19]Forhundreds of years,people have tried to build machines that never stop, [14:58.35]but the laws of physics show that it cannot be done. [15:03.39]The "space motion",however,could turn out to be endless. [15:09.74]The scientists working on the programme [15:13.58]believe that these fields of energy can be put to work. [15:18.44]If they are successful, [15:21.68]a new and cheap energy source will become available to us. [15:27.14]It should be said that most scientists [15:31.40]think that these inventions will never work. [15:35.37]perhaps they are right, [15:38.42]but we would do well to keep in mind [15:42.55]that many inventions that we now take for granted were greeted with doubt. [15:48.58]People laughed at Benjamin Franklin's early discoveries [15:53.42]and many other great scientists [15:57.05]had to wait many years before their ideas were accepted. [16:02.61]It is also important to remember [16:06.56]that new inventions do not always work well in the beginning [16:11.91]--a good example is the first airplane, [16:16.17]which only flew a very short distance 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20130110/101637.html