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新编大学英语阅读4 Unit 10

发表时间:2012-12-24内容来源:VOA英语学习网
[by:www.tingvoa.com - VOA英语网] [00:00.00]喜欢VOA英语网,就把tingvoa.com复制到QQ个人资料中!A License to Kill [00:01.17]杀人执照 [00:02.34]1 Advocates of assisted suicide and euthanasia find a role model in Holland, [00:05.53]荷兰是唯一允许协助自然和安乐死的国家, [00:08.71]the only country that permits both practices. [00:10.85]唯一一个提倡以上两种做法的国家 [00:13.00]They say its policy is a "remarkable triumph of common sense." [00:15.88]他们说荷兰的政策是“常识的伟大胜利”。 [00:18.76]Yet a closer look reveals the truth about the practice of euthanasia in Holland. [00:22.14]但是,进一步的观察向我们展示了荷兰安乐死做法的真实状况。 [00:25.52]2 The Royal Dutch Medical Association officially endorsed euthanasia in 1984, [00:29.02]荷兰皇家医学会于1984年正式批准实施安乐死, [00:32.51]and issued strict guidelines on how to perform it: [00:34.54]并且公布了施行安乐死的严格准则: [00:36.58]The patient's condition must be one of unbearable suffering that cannot be relieved, [00:39.60]病人必须忍受着某种无法缓解但又难以忍受的病痛, [00:42.62]and the patient must freely request to die.When a patient does ask,the doctor should not proceed without consulting an independent physician. [00:48.28]而且病人必须主动地要求死去。如果病人确实提出这种要求,病人的医生如果不经过向一位独立行诊的内科医生咨询,不得实施安乐死。 [00:53.93]Then each case must be reported as an"unnatural death"to local officials. [00:56.95]然后,每个安乐死的病例必须以“非正常死亡”上报当地官员。 [00:59.98]Doctors who don't follow the guidelines can be imprisoned for up to 12 years. [01:03.00]不遵守准则的医生可以被判处最长达12年的监禁。 [01:06.02]3 Approved by parliament, [01:07.05]议会批准, [01:08.08]the guidelines were meant to protect and empower terminally ill patients. [01:10.60]这些准则原本是为了保护临终病,使他们有选择生死的权力。 [01:13.12]But evidence suggests that they empower doctors instead. [01:15.67]但是有迹象表明,准则实际上把权力给了医生。 [01:18.23]4 Though patients are supposed to decide for themselves,they are sometimes influenced by doctors. [01:21.83]尽管本来由病人自由作出决定,但病人们有时会受到医生的影响。 [01:25.43]If doctors judge someone's quality of life to be low,they ask, [01:27.95]如果医生们断定某位病人的生活质量低,他们会问: [01:30.47]"Why should we add to the suffering?" [01:31.89]“我们为什么还要再增加病人的痛苦呢?” [01:33.31]5 A survey commissioned by the Dutch government estimated that only 3,600 people died in 1995 as a result of assisted suicide or euthanasia. [01:39.54]由荷兰政府授权的一项调查表明,在1995年只有3600人死于协助自杀或安乐死。 [01:45.77]But this only included cases where the patient requested death. [01:48.29]但这个数字只包括病人本人要求被实施安乐死的病例。 [01:50.81]The survey did not count as euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide the 900 cases [01:54.61]有900个都没有被当作安乐死或医生协助自杀而统计病例病人没有提要求实施安乐死。 [01:58.40]in which patients' lives were ended without their request and nearly 1,900 deaths in which doctors increased [02:02.62]以及大约1900起是医生显然出于加速病人死亡的目的而增加了 [02:06.83]pain-killing drugs with the explicit intention of has-tening death. [02:09.49]镇痛剂用药量而造成的死亡, [02:12.16]6 A 64-year-old woman,told in 1988 that she had advanced ovarian cancer,wished to die at home. [02:16.73]1988年,一位六十四岁的妇女被告知患有晚期卵巢癌,她希望在家里死去。 [02:21.30]When she awoke one morning covered in what looked like red pinpricks,her husband took her to the hospital. [02:25.24]一天早晨,她醒来,发现全身长满了针孔大小的红点,所以她的丈夫送她去医院。 [02:29.18]Returning to the hospital the next day to take his wife home, [02:31.45]第二天他去医院接妻子回家, [02:33.72]he took a short walk while he waited for the doctor to attend to his wife. [02:36.19]在等医生检查他妻子时,他去散了一会儿步。 [02:38.65]When the husband returned to his wife's room,she was unresponsive. [02:41.06]当这位丈夫回到他妻子的房间时,她没有没有反应了。 [02:43.48]Three hours later she died from lethal drugs the doctor had injected into her body. [02:46.91]三个小时后,她死了——死于医生注入她体内的致命药物。 [02:50.35]7 The husband believes a doctor proposed the injection and his wife was swayed. [02:53.18]这位丈夫以为是医生建议他的妻子注射这种药物,并且他的妻子被说动了。 [02:56.00]"She always thought doctors knew best,"the husband said. [02:58.00]“她总是认为医生建议知道得最多,”他说。 [03:00.00]"It wasn't euthanasia--it was murder." [03:01.80]“这不是安乐死——这是谋杀。” [03:03.60]But there was no investigation since he did not want the doctor prosecuted. [03:06.26]但是,即使他不希望这个医生被起诉,这件事没有进一步的调查。 [03:08.93]8 Because euthanasia is politically correct,prosecutors are often unwilling to press charges. [03:12.78]因为安乐死在政策上是正确的,所以检察官往往不愿意提出指控。 [03:16.63]Since 1981 only 20 doctors have faced the courts. [03:19.19]自从1981年以来,只有20名医生被送上法庭。 [03:21.74]Nine were convicted. [03:23.02]9人被判有罪, [03:24.30]Of those,six received suspended sentences,and three were given no punishment at all. [03:28.35]其中6人缓期执行,而另外3人根本就没有受到惩罚。 [03:32.40]9 Doctors who have studied euthanasia in the Netherlands note that"what was intended as a [03:35.17]研究过荷兰安乐死实施状况的医生们注意到,原本用来 [03:37.94]solution for exceptional cases has become a routine way of dealing with terminal cases. [03:41.49]处理特殊病例的方法已经成了处理不治之症的常规方法。 [03:45.04]The Netherlands has moved from euthanasia for the terminally ill to euthanasia for the chronically ill, [03:48.83]荷兰安乐死的实施对象已从患不治之症的晚期病人扩展到得慢性病的病人, [03:52.63]from euthanasia for physical illness to euthanasia for psychological distress, [03:55.91]从生理疾病扩展到心理抑郁症, [03:59.18]and from voluntary to involuntary euthanasia;" [04:01.60]从自愿扩展到非自愿。” [04:04.01]10 Already,Holland's euthanasia guidelines offer scant protection to the mentally ill and newborn babies. [04:08.11]荷兰的安乐死施行准则已经不能为精神病患者和新生婴儿提供足够的保护。 [04:12.22]Researchers from the University of Utrecht found that more than 40 percent of all mentally handicapped patients [04:16.16]乌德勒友大学的研究人员发现,精神病超过40%的病人, [04:20.10]who died in 1995 did so after a doctor's decision to withdraw treatment, [04:23.48]在1995年在遵照医嘱停止接受治疗, [04:26.87]increase pain-killing drugs or give lethal injections. [04:29.28]增加止痛药剂量或被注射致命药物后死去的。 [04:31.69]In that same year,doctors were charged with killing two handicapped newborns. [04:34.52]同年,有医生被指控杀死两名残疾的新生婴儿。 [04:37.34]The courts ruled that the doctors had no option but to kill. [04:39.49]法庭裁决医生是不得已而为之,他别无选择。 [04:41.63]The survey commissioned by the Dutch government reports that doctors now kill about 15 nonviable newborns a year. [04:46.36]荷兰政府授权进行的那项调查表明,目前医生每年大约要处死15个不能存活的新生儿。 [04:51.10]11 In some cases,a patient's "right to die"has subtly become a "duty to die". [04:54.64]在某些情况下,病人的“有权去死”已经微妙地变成了“有义务去死。” [04:58.19]Some people are pressured toward euthanasia by exhausted and impatient relatives. [05:01.57]有些病人迫于亲属们精疲力劲失去耐心的压力,选择安乐死。 [05:04.96]A story is told of a woman whose relatives gathered in Amsterdam for her planned euthanasia. [05:08.50]有这么一个故事,有一位妇女打算接受安乐死,因此她的亲戚们都来到了阿姆斯特丹。 [05:12.05]One relative came from overseas. [05:13.69]其中还有一位从国外赶来。 [05:15.32]When the patient had last-minute doubts,the family said,"You can't have her come all this way for nothing." [05:19.07]当病人在最后一刻犹豫不决时,她的家里人说,“你可不能让她那么大老远的白跑来一趟埃” [05:22.81]Instead of ensuring that the patient's true wishes were observed,the doctor carried out the euthanasia. [05:26.70]于是医生没有尊重病人的真实愿望,就对她实施了安乐死。 [05:30.59]12 the key alternative to euthanasia--palliative care--is largely unavailable in Holland. [05:34.75]安乐死的一个主要替代方案——姑息疗法——在荷兰进展得远远不够。 [05:38.90]Originated in England 30 years ago, [05:40.70]30年前在英国出现 [05:42.50]this philosophy of total care for the terminally ill and their families offers spiritual comfort and the control of [05:46.45]这样做的目的是使病人及其家属们精神上得到安慰、身体上的痛苦得到控制。 [05:50.39]physical and mental pain without seeking to either hasten or postpone death. [05:53.36]而同时不加速或延缓病人的死亡。 [05:56.33]Today almost all communities in the United Kingdom and many in Europe and North America provide such care, [06:00.49]目前,英国几乎所有的社区、欧洲和拉美的很多社区都提供这种护理。 [06:04.64]often in facilities known as hospices. [06:06.50]这种护理一般都在晚期病人护理所中进行。 [06:08.35]13 Dr.Robert Twycross,a leading British authority on palliative care, [06:11.29]英国姑息疗法的主要权威罗伯特·特瓦克劳斯医生, [06:14.22]recalls a cancer patient who drank excessively to escape the pain and mental distress caused by his illness and finally demanded to be put to death. [06:19.62]回忆说,有一位病人曾用酗酒来逃避疾病引起的疼痛和精神抑郁,最后他请求安乐死。 [06:25.02]After pain treatment,the patient changed his mind,saying,"It wasn't me speaking.It was the alcohol." [06:29.02]在进行疼痛治疗后,这位病人改变了主意。他说:“以前不是我在说话,是酒精在说话。” [06:33.01]14 "Depression often overlaps and complicates terminal illness, [06:35.26]“患晚期不治之症的病人通常伴随着精神抑郁,并且精神抑郁使病人病情复杂化,” [06:37.51]Twycross says. [06:38.43]特瓦克劳斯说。 [06:39.35]"As the patient comes out of depression, [06:40.63]“当病人摆脱了抑郁情绪之后, [06:41.90]the demand for euthanasia evaporates." [06:43.94]要求安乐死的想法就烟消云散了。” [06:45.97]15 A 65-year-old widow learned in October 1996 that neither surgery nor chemotherapy was likely to cure her cancer of the throat and stomach. [06:51.57]1996年10月,一位65岁的寡妇得知无论是手术还是化疗都不大可能治愈她的喉癌和胃癌。 [06:57.17]But the two options available-a hospital or a nursing home--did not appeal to her, [07:00.66]而她所面临的两种选择——去医院或去小型疗养院——她都不喜欢。 [07:04.15]because she feared that her wishes would not be respected in either place. [07:06.56]因为她担心在这两个地方她自己的意愿得不到尊重。 [07:08.98]"I'm not afraid of death,"she said, [07:10.45]“我不怕死,”她说, [07:11.93]"but I don't want someone else to decide how I should die." [07:13.96]“可我不愿意由他人来决定我该怎么死。” [07:16.00]She seriously considered euthanasia. [07:17.74]她认真地考虑了安乐死。 [07:19.49]16 Like most Dutch people,she knew little about options in palliative care.' [07:22.42]与大多数荷兰人一样,她对姑息疗法知之甚少。 [07:25.36]Then an acquaintance told her about a hospice in a nearby city. [07:27.71]后来有一位熟人告诉了她在附近的一个城市里的一所晚期病人护理所的情况。 [07:30.07]17 Five weeks later,she was sitting in the sun lounge of the hospice. [07:32.16]五个星期之后,她正坐在护理所的日光室里。 [07:34.25]"When I came here,I could hardly walk or talk,and I hadn't eaten for a month, [07:36.61]“当初我刚来这时,我几乎不能走路或说话,并且有一个月没有吃东西了,” [07:38.96]"she recalled." [07:39.77]她回忆说。 [07:40.58]After ten days,I chat,Walk and feel relaxed. [07:42.89]“十天后,我能聊天,散步,并且还感到轻松了。 [07:45.19]I know I'm not leaving here alive,but I feel like a human being." [07:47.75]我知道我不能活着离开这里,可我觉得自己活得像个人。” [07:50.30]18 She died peacefully a few weeks later. [07:51.83]几个星期之后,她平静地去世了。 [07:53.36]She had been cared for by a doctor with a special sense of mission --Ben Zylicz. [07:56.50]她得到本·塞力克斯医生的照料,他是一位怀有特殊使命感的医生。 [07:59.63]19 Five years before,soon after his patient was euthanized by another doctor, [08:02.51]五年前,就在塞力克斯医生的一名病人被另一位医生施以安乐死死后不久, [08:05.39]Zylicz quit his hospital post to dedicate himself to an alternative. [08:07.87]他辞去了医院的职务,投身于姑息疗法。 [08:10.36]"As a doctor,I saw lives taken for reasons that had little to do with healing,"he says, [08:13.85]他说:“作为一名医生,我亲眼目睹病人死于与治疗不相关的缘由,” [08:17.34]"Now I am able to help patients in a humane and caring way. [08:20.31]“现在,我可以用一种人道和关怀的方式来帮助病人。” [08:23.28]20 "I hope that others--both doctors and patients-will have that chance." [08:26.36]“我希望别人——无论是医生还是病人——都有那样的机会。” [08:29.44]New Words [08:30.46]单词 [08:31.49]advocate n & v [08:32.96]1)拥护者,提倡者 2)拥护,提倡 [08:34.44]caring adj [08:35.47]关怀的 [08:36.49]chemotherapy n [08:38.02]化学疗法 [08:39.55]complicate v [08:40.61]1)使……变得更糟,使……更加恶化 2)使……变得错综复杂,使……难弄 [08:41.68]dedicate v [08:42.95]献身,致力于,把(时间、精力等)用于 [08:44.23]euthanasia n [08:45.71]无痛苦致死术,安乐死 [08:47.18]euthanize v [08:48.46]使安乐死 [08:49.74]evaporate v [08:50.86]1)消失,逐渐消散 2)(使液体或固体)蒸发,挥发 [08:51.97]freely adv [08:53.14]自愿地 [08:54.31]handicapped adj [08:55.59]残疾的,有智力缺陷的 [08:56.87]hospice n [08:57.98](晚期病人)护理所 [08:59.10]humane adj [09:00.41]人道的,富有同情心的 [09:01.73]imprison v [09:03.01]监禁,关押 [09:04.28]inject v [09:05.40]注射 [09:06.52]investigation n [09:07.88]调查,调查研究 [09:09.25]involuntary adj [09:10.57]1)不是出于自愿的 2)无意识的,不自觉的 [09:11.88]license n [09:13.30]1)理由,借口 2)许可证,执照 [09:14.72]nonviable adj [09:16.00]不能生长发育的 [09:17.28]ovarian adj [09:18.45]卵巢的 [09:19.62]overlap v [09:20.99]与……部分重叠 [09:22.36]overseas adv & adj [09:23.78]1)(在、向或来自)海外,(在、向或来自)国外 2)来自海外的,在海外的 [09:25.20]palliative adj [09:26.62]减轻的,缓和的,治标的 [09:28.04]parliament n [09:29.52]国会,议会 [09:31.00]pinprick n [09:32.17]小孔,针刺的孔 [09:33.34]prosecutor n [09:34.61]检察官,公诉人 [09:35.89]scant adj [09:36.95]不足的,欠缺的 [09:38.02]suspended adj [09:39.13]被暂时搁置的 [09:40.25]sway v [09:41.47]1)使动摇,影响 2)(使……)摇摆 [09:42.70]terminally adv [09:43.92]晚期地,致命地 [09:45.14]unavailable adj [09:46.42]不可获得的 [09:47.70]unresponsive adj [09:48.73]没有反应的 [09:49.75]Required Course:Bedside Manner 101 [09:52.06]必修课101:病床前的态度 [09:54.36]1 Connie Cronin is the kind of nurse who loves to work the overnight shift on Christmas Eve to usher in the holiday with her patients. [09:58.75]康妮·克罗宁是一位护士,她喜欢在圣诞前夜值夜班,和她的病人一起迎接节日的到来。 [10:03.14]That's why she was so troubled one morning when she realized on her way home from work [10:06.02]这天早上,在她下班回家的路上她觉得很愧疚; [10:08.90]that she had all but ignored a patient ravaged with infections and confined to isolation. [10:12.22]因为她意识到她几乎忽视了一位因发炎而病得很重而被隔离治疗的病人。 [10:15.53]Cronin was the only person the patient would see all night, [10:17.33]克罗宁是那天这位病人整个晚上唯一能见到的人。 [10:19.13]but because she was also the only nurse on duty,she avoided his gaze in her rush to finish her tasks. [10:22.78]但是,因为她也是当晚唯一值班的护士,她在匆忙完成工作的时候避免着看到他的目光。 [10:26.44]The next evening she headed straight to his room only to learn that he had died. [10:29.23]第二天晚上,她直奔到他的房间,但是发现他已经死了。 [10:32.02]"I abandoned that man during his last hours on Earth,"she says. [10:34.39]“在他生命的最后几个小时,我没有给予他需要的关怀。”她说。 [10:36.77]2 Virtually every health worker has a story of regret over care not given to a needy patient. [10:40.28]事实上,每个医疗工作者都有没有给予病人所渴望的关怀的遗憾。 [10:43.79]Such events were once the exception, [10:45.08]医疗工作者们认为,以前,这样的事件只是偶发事件, [10:46.38]but today,caregivers say,they are becoming the rule. [10:48.76]而如今已成为司空见惯的事情。 [10:51.13]One CEO of a large health and hospital system in Dallas,Texas, [10:53.80]德克萨斯州达勒斯的一位在健康和医院系统的负责人说, [10:56.46]believes that doctors get pressure from all sides to reduce costs and it takes their focus off the patient. [11:00.17]由于来自各个方面的压力,医生们不得不减少费用,这就使他们的注意力不再集中到病人身上。 [11:03.88]His opinion was echoed by other doctors,nurses and administrators, [11:06.63]他的观点受到与会的医生、护士及行政管理人员的一致赞同。 [11:09.38]who attended the first national conference on"relationship-centered"care in December 1998. [11:13.20]1998年12月,全美第一次“加强医护人员对病人的关怀”会议召开。 [11:17.02]18 As the conference title suggests, [11:18.31]正如这个会议名称所提示的, [11:19.61]most health professionals agree on the need for doctors and nurses alike to practice better [11:22.79]大多数的医疗系统专业人员们同意:医护人员应该对病人施予更多的关爱。 [11:25.98]bedside manners during increasingly short sessions with patients. [11:28.55]在医生、护士接触病人的时间日趋缩短的情况下。 [11:31.13]Studies show that the more comfortable patients feel with a caregiver, [11:33.50]研究表明病人人对他们受到的治疗和护理越满意, [11:35.88]the more likely they are to reveal key medical facts and to follow medical instructions. [11:39.30]则越有可能说出关键的病痛和更好的遵医嘱行事。 [11:42.72]Yet,6 out of 10 doctors surveyed said that medical school had poorly prepared them to talk with patients. [11:46.66]但是,调查表明60%的医生认为医学院的学习并没有使当初作为学生的他们学会怎么与病人交谈。 [11:50.60]Also 7 out of 10 doctors surveyed said that insufficient time with patients was a serious problem. [11:54.58]同时,70%的医生认为,与病人的相处时间不够长,也是一个严重的问题。 [11:58.56]4 Still,health care workers can take a number of steps to improve their talks with patients, [12:01.46]但是,医疗工作者仍然可以按以下步骤来提高他们与病人的谈话的质量。 [12:04.36]according to Aaron Lazare,Dean of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. [12:07.25]马萨诸塞大学医学院的系主任艾伦.拉扎尔认为, [12:10.15]For example,after asking,"What brings you here today?" [12:12.46]比如,在提出问题,“什么不适让您到医院来?”之后, [12:14.76]a doctor should try not to interrupt the patient's reply. [12:16.83]医生应该倾听着而不要去打断病人的回答。 [12:18.90]A recent study showed that a doctor usually breaks in after just 18 seconds, [12:21.80]最近的一项研究表明,医生通常在提出问题18秒后就会插话, [12:24.70]but a patient who is allowed to speak freely will finish in two and a half minutes. [12:27.63]而病人如果被允许自由说话的话,需要用2分30秒才能回答完这个问题。 [12:30.56]A second key question,the Dean says,is,"What were you hoping I could do for you?" [12:33.75]系主任说第二个主要问题是“你希望我能为你做什么?” [12:36.94]Doctors and nurses are often amazed by the answer. [12:38.92]而医生和护士的经常对病人的回答而困惑不已。 [12:40.90]Patients want to be told that they don't have cancer. [12:42.70]病人们希望被告知他们没有得癌症。 [12:44.50]Other times they say,"Tell my wife not to leave me"or"Tell my boss I can't work." [12:47.92]有时候,他们会说“告诉我妻子别离开我”或“别告诉老板我不能工作了。” [12:51.34]5 A doctor's biggest mistake,researchers say, [12:53.05]研究者们认为,一个医生的最大错误是: [12:54.76]is intimidating patients into silence by tapping a pencil impatiently or keeping one hand on the exam room door handle. [12:59.42]不耐烦地敲着笔或把一只手搭在检查室的门把上,吓得病人不敢说下去。 [13:04.08]Dean Lazare says, [13:05.27]拉扎尔主任说: [13:06.46]"No visit should end without a doctor asking,'Is there anything else you'd like to tell me?' [13:09.59]“每一次问诊都应该以医生说‘您还有什么别的不适要告诉我吗’而结束。” [13:12.72]"For their part,patients must speak up. [13:14.57]就病人这一方面而言,他们必须毫无保留地说出自己想说的。 [13:16.43]Many people suffer from what medical professionals call the "good-patient syndrome", [13:19.15]许多病人患有医疗工作者们所称作的“好病人综合症”, [13:21.86]a reluctance to take up a nurse's time or a fear that a complaint isn't worth mentioning. [13:25.10]即不愿意占用护士的时间或认为某种不适不值得提及。 [13:28.34]One thing that frustrates doctors is that a number of patients wait until they are halfway out the door to bring up their most urgent concern. [13:32.90]还有一位让医生颇感沮丧的事情:许多病人一直等到他们一只脚已踏到诊疗室的门外,才说出最令他们担心的事情。 [13:37.45]6 To prevent these problems, [13:38.32]为了预防这些问题, [13:39.18]Dean Lazare and others are helping medical and nursing schools create a list of communication"competencies", [13:42.91]拉扎尔主任和其他人员正帮医学院和护士学校制定一系列的交流“秘诀”, [13:46.63]such as helping a patient discuss worries and delivering bad news gently. [13:49.48]比如说怎么帮助病人说出他们的担心以及委婉地向他们传达不好的消息。 [13:52.32]A few schools now require future health professionals to take a course each year to practice with actors simulating difficult cases. [13:57.25]现在,有一些学校要求未来的医疗工作者们每年必修一门课,即由演员扮演成病人,接受学生们的问诊。 [14:02.18]Students are videotaped so that they can see themselves backing away from a prostitute, [14:04.94]学生们的表现被制成录像带,这样他们就能看到自己厌恶地躲开一个妓女(病人), [14:07.69]sighing as an elderly man talks on and on,or glaring angrily when challenged. [14:11.15]或是当一个老人不停地诉说时自己在叹气,又或是当受到质疑时怒气冲冲地瞪着病人。 [14:14.60]Soon students may conduct mock physicals and be graded on bedside manner as part of medical licensing exams. [14:18.65]很快地,学生进行模拟体验和他们的表现将成为医生从业资格考试的一部分。 [14:22.70]7 No matter what formal training is offered, [14:24.16]不管接受了什么样的正式培训, [14:25.62]nurses and doctors will always find their own ways of meeting a patient's needs. [14:28.19]医生们和护士们总是能找到他们自己的满足病人需要的方法。 [14:30.77]Connie Cronin set up a network of nurses who were willing to cover for one another when the need arose. [14:34.19]康妮·克罗宁把那些愿意在工作中互相帮助的护士组织起来。 [14:37.61]Thanks to that system, [14:38.58]由于有了这个组织, [14:39.55]she was able to spend 45 minutes with a dying cancer patient while the woman waited for her husband in the middle of the night. [14:43.55]当康妮·克罗宁半夜等她丈夫来接她的时候,能够照顾一位生命垂危的癌症病人45分钟。 [14:47.54]He didn't arrive in time,but the patient had Cronin there to hold her hand through her final breath. [14:50.87]那天,她丈夫没能按时来接她,但是病人有机会由康妮在床前陪她渡过了生命的最后一刻。 [14:54.20]8 Dr.Bernie Siegel,a surgeon at Yale Medical School, [14:56.51]伯尼·西格尔医生,是耶鲁医学院的外科医生。 [14:58.81]has developed his own way for relating to his patients more effectively. [15:01.12]他摸索出自己的一套方法,即通过病人的行为更有效地了解病人。 [15:03.42]He recently wrote a book called Love,Medicine,and Miracles, [15:06.08]最近,他写了一本书《爱、药和奇迹》, [15:08.75]which tells of his life and experience in healing. [15:10.60]讲述自己的生活和治疗病人的经历。 [15:12.46]In the 1970s he was a surgeon at Yale, [15:14.31]在二十世纪七十年代,他是耶鲁大学的一名外科医生, [15:16.16]had a wonderful wife and five beautiful children,but he was terribly unhappy. [15:19.24]有一位很好的妻子以及五个漂亮的孩子,但是他那时过得非常不快活。 [15:22.32]Like most doctors of his generation, [15:23.74]与同一时代的大多数医生一样, [15:25.16]he had been trained to keep an emotional distance from sick people and their families. [15:27.92]他所受的教育让他从感情上远离病人和病人的家庭。 [15:30.67]He treated people's diseases and kept himself apart from their lives, [15:33.30]他为病人治病,但是使自己远离他们的生活。 [15:35.93]but he was miserable behind the wall he had built between his patients and himself. [15:38.77]他和他的病人们之间有一堵墙,在这堵墙后,他很可怜。 [15:41.62]He considered leaving medicine. [15:43.18]他考虑着不当医生了。 [15:44.75]9 Then he decided that before he quit he would try a different way of doctoring. [15:47.59]于是他决定,在他辞职之前,要换一种方式当医生。 [15:50.44]He would allow himself to care about the patients he was treating. [15:52.51]他要让自己去关心他所治疗的病人。 [15:54.58]Once he did this, [15:55.55]一旦他这样做了之后, [15:56.52]he began to see that it was very strange to think of medicine as a profession where doctors stand apart from their patients. [16:00.39]就开始明白,如果把行医看作是一种需要医生与他们的病人远远的保持距离的职业,那是非常可笑的。 [16:04.26]He knew that that he had to deal with cancer but that cancers were growing inside of people. [16:07.39]他清楚他必须进行治疗针对癌症,但是癌症又是长在病人体内的。 [16:10.52]So he shaved his head, [16:11.77]因此,他把头剃光, [16:13.01]moved his desk against the wall,sat down by his patients, [16:15.17]将桌子靠墙放,在病人身旁坐下, [16:17.33]and asked them to call him by his first name,Bernie. [16:19.40]让他们直呼自己的名字:伯尼。 [16:21.47]10 As Bernie,he now talks with his patients and tries to help them with their fears. [16:24.46]作为伯尼,他现在和病人聊天并且帮助他们克服恐惧心理。 [16:27.44]One thing he tells everyone is that it is important to show appreciation to others. [16:30.16]他告诉每个人这一点:向别人表示你很感激他是重要的。 [16:32.88]He often tells people to give a reminder of their love to their family that day-a note, [16:36.10]他经常告诉人们在那一天向家人表达他们的爱——可以是用一张便条、 [16:39.32]flowers,a card,a hug, [16:40.93]一束花、一张卡片、一个拥抱, [16:42.53]or just say it out loud because everyone in the family needs reminders. [16:45.08]或仅仅是把它说出来,因为家里的每个人都需要这种爱的表示。 [16:47.64]He recommends that his patient say"I love you"to someone that day, [16:49.98]他建议在那一天他的病人向某人说“我爱你”, [16:52.32]starting with the one to whom it is the hardest to say, [16:54.21]并且最先向他最难以启齿的人说, [16:56.10]and who often needs it the most. [16:57.43]而这个人常常是最需要这句话的人。 [16:58.76]He strongly believes that this "prescription"works well and has no side effects. [17:01.70]他坚信这个“处方”效果很好而且没有副作用。 [17:04.63]It is helpful to the person who is ill as well as to those people who are not. [17:07.44]它对病人和身体健康的人同样有帮助。 [17:10.25]Bernie is convinced that if people are to heal physically they must also heal emotionally. [17:13.58]伯尼认为医生不仅要治愈病人身体上的不适,还得解开病人思想上的疙瘩。 [17:16.91]When his cancer patients are undergoing unpleasant treatments such as chemotherapy, [17:19.72]当他的患癌症的病人正在接受像化疗这样令人不快的治疗时, [17:22.52]expressions of love help both them and those who are close to them. [17:24.92]这些对爱的表达不仅帮助了这些病人,而且帮助了病人周围的人们。 [17:27.31]His patients believe him because he takes the time to show his love and concern to them. [17:30.21]他的病人们很相信他,因为他花了时间去表明他对病人的爱和关心。 [17:33.11]Not all doctors can become Bernie Siegel, [17:34.85]不是所有的医生都能成为伯尼·西格尔, [17:36.60]but all can learn to become more caring. [17:38.45]但是所有的医生都能学得变得更加有爱心。 [17:40.31]New Words [17:40.90]单词 [17:41.50]bedside n [17:42.77]床边 [17:44.05]caregiver n [17:44.97]照顾者 [17:45.89]CEO n [17:46.86]总经理 [17:47.83]doctoring n [17:48.89]医治,治疗 [17:49.96]mock adj [17:50.60]非真实的,模拟的 [17:51.25]prostitute n [17:51.94]娼妓,妓女 [17:52.62]ravage v [17:53.59]毁坏,使遭蹂躏 [17:54.56]Human Cloning,Don't Just Say No! [17:56.69]对克隆人类,不只是说“不” [17:58.81]1 That scientists have cloned a sheep sends academics and the public into a panic at the prospect that humans might be next. [18:04.57]科学家们已经克隆了一只羊,这使专业学者和大众陷入恐慌:他们担心下一个被克隆的将是人类。 [18:10.33]That's an understandable reaction. [18:11.66]这是一种可以理解的反应。 [18:13.00]Cloning is a radical challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, [18:16.27]克隆是对最根本的生物学法则的挑战, [18:19.55]so it's not unreasonable to be concerned that it might threaten human society and dignity. [18:23.45]因此担心它会威胁人类社会和人类的尊严,是合情合理的。 [18:27.36]Yet much of the ethical opposition seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust. [18:31.36]但是,很多人认为克隆不道德并且反对它,不是深思熟虑之后的结论,而只是因为他们从本能上讨厌它。 [18:35.35]And that makes it hard for even trained scientists and ethicists to see the matter clearly. [18:39.40]甚至很多受过训练的科学家和道德家们也因此而不能很好地看待克隆这一现象。 [18:43.45]While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, [18:46.30]即使克隆人类可能不会带给人类巨大的好处, [18:49.14]no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm,either. [18:52.65]但是没有人能提供有说服力的例子证明它有任何坏处。 [18:56.16]2 Theologians contend that to clone a human would violate human dignity. [18:59.38]神学家们认为克隆人类将有损人类的尊严。 [19:02.60]That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a lesser being, [19:05.83]如果说被克隆的人被当作次等人对待, [19:09.05]with fewer rights or lower stature. [19:10.70]或拥有较少的权力和低等的社会地位,那么确实有损人的尊严。 [19:12.36]But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn't share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us? [19:16.59]但是为什么要假设被克隆的人类不能和我们分享权力和尊严呢? [19:20.82]A leading ethicist has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic identity". [19:24.64]一位权威的伦理学家认为克隆将破坏“拥有基因身份的权利。” [19:28.45]Where did he come up with such a right? [19:29.91]他是从哪里想到的这个权利? [19:31.37]It makes perfect sense to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, [19:35.45]如果说一位成年人不知情同意,他就有不被克隆的权利的话, [19:39.54]informed consent. [19:40.82]这位伦理学家的说法还有一定的意义。 [19:42.10]But if such consent is given,whose "right"to genetic identity would be violated? [19:45.43]但是,如果他知情同意的话,又是谁的“拥有基因身份的权利”将被破坏呢? [19:48.76]3 Many of the science-fiction scenarios prompted by the prospect of human cloning turn out, [19:51.69]有许多以人类基因克隆为题材的科幻小说剧本, [19:54.62]upon reflection,to be absurdly improbable. [19:57.02]但是经过对这些剧本的仔细推敲,便会发现其内容荒诞不经。 [19:59.41]There's the fear,for instance, [20:00.51]比如,有人担心, [20:01.61]that parents might clone a child to have"spare parts"in case the original child needs an organ transplant. [20:05.89]父母们会克隆一个小孩,以在必要的时候为其原有小孩的器官移植,提供器官。 [20:10.18]But parents of identical twins don't view one child as an organ farm for the other. [20:13.31]但是,双胞胎的父母们并不认为其中一个孩子是另一个孩子的“器官生产厂”; [20:16.44]Why should cloned children's parents be any different? [20:18.65]那么,为什么要认为拥有克隆子女的父母会与双胞胎(或多胞胎)父母对待孩子的方式有不同呢? [20:20.87]4 Another disturbing thought is that cloning will lead to efforts to breed individuals with genetic qualities perceived as exceptional [20:25.24]另一个令人担心的问题是:克隆技术将导致人们努力培育具备特别基因素质的个体, [20:29.62](math geniuses,basketball players). [20:31.27]比如数学天才、蓝球运动员。 [20:32.93]Such ideas are repulsive because of the atrocities committed by the Nazis in the name of eugenics. [20:36.71]这种想法是令人厌恶的,因为(它使我们想起了)纳粹曾经以优秀人种学说为名义所犯下的暴行。 [20:40.49]But there's a vast difference between "selective breeding"as practiced by totalitarian regimes [20:44.54]但是集权主义国家所实施的“选择繁衍” [20:48.59](where the urge to produce certain types of people leads to efforts to eradicate other types) [20:52.10](强烈地希望繁衍某些民族而试图灭绝其他民族) [20:55.61]and the immeasurably more benign forms already practiced in democratic societies [20:59.32]与已在民主国家中进行的已温和了很多的选择繁衍形式, [21:03.02](where,say,lawyers freely choose to marry other lawyers). [21:05.78](比如说,律师自由选择与律师结婚) [21:08.53]Banks stocked with the frozen sperm of geniuses already exist. [21:11.43]保持有天才们的精液的冷冻精子库早就建立起来了。 [21:14.33]They haven't created a master race because only a tiny number of women have wanted to impregnate themselves this way. [21:18.02]但是一个优等民族并没有因此而产生,因为需要借助精子库内的精子怀孕的育龄妇女毕竟是极少数。 [21:21.71]Why would it be different if human cloning became available? [21:24.28]如果克隆技术发展到一定程度,利用克隆技术与利用精子库繁衍后代,又有什么不同呢? [21:26.86]5 So who will likely take advantage of cloning? [21:28.60]那么,将有哪些人们将受益于克隆技术呢? [21:30.35]Perhaps a grieving couple whose child is dying. [21:32.60]也许是一对因孩子生命垂危而悲痛不已的夫妇。 [21:34.85]This might seem psychologically twisted. [21:36.52]这看起来有些心理变态。 [21:38.20]But a cloned child born to such dubious parents stands no greater or lesser chance of being loved, [21:41.56]但是这些可能会有心理变态的(不大可靠)的父母,对待他们克隆的子女 [21:44.93]or rejected,or warped than a child normally conceived. [21:47.41]会像对待他们正常生育的小孩一样,别无二致。 [21:49.90]Infertile couples are also likely to seek out cloning. [21:51.93]没有生育能力的夫妇也可能受益于克隆技术。 [21:53.96]That such couples have other options(in vitro fertilization or adoption)is not an argument for denying them the right to clone. [21:58.84]这些夫妇有别的选择(如体外受精或领养),但是这些别的选择,并不能作为剥夺他们享有克隆权利的依据。 [22:03.72]Or consider an example raised by Judge Richard Posner: [22:06.02]或者我们讨论一下由理查德·鲍斯奈法官举出的一个案例: [22:08.33]a couple in which the husband has some tragic genetic defect. [22:10.76]有一对夫妇,丈夫有某种遗传基因缺陷。 [22:13.19]Currently,if this couple wants a genetically related child, [22:15.44]目前,如果这对夫妇想要一个有血缘关系的孩子, [22:17.69]they have four not altogether pleasant options. [22:19.90]他们有四种不那么令人愉快的选择。 [22:22.12]They can reproduce naturally and risk passing on the disease to the child. [22:25.19]他们可以自然生产,但是要冒把遗传性疾病传给子女的危险。 [22:28.27]They can go to a sperm bank and take a chance on unknown genes. [22:30.85]他们可以去精子库,去选择不知名者的精子。 [22:33.42]They can try in vitro fertilization and dispose of any afflicted embryo--though that might be objectionable,too. [22:38.17]他们也可以尝试体外受精并且处理令人痛苦的胚胎——虽然这种选择也会令人不快。 [22:42.92]Or they can get a male relative of the father to donate sperm,if such a relative exists. [22:46.70]或者如果丈夫有男性亲戚,可以请这位亲戚捐献精子。 [22:50.48]This is one case where even people unnerved by cloning might see it as not the worst option. [22:54.12]从这个例子,即使对克隆技术不感冒的人们也能发现基因克隆不是最坏的选择。 [22:57.76]6 Even if human cloning offers no obvious benefits to humanity,why ban it? [23:00.94]即使克隆人类不能为人类带来明显的好处,又为什么要禁止它呢? [23:04.13]In a democratic society we don't usually pass laws outlawing something before there is actual or probable evidence of harm. [23:09.38]在一个民主的社会中,我们通常不会在某个事物还没有确切的或可能的有危害的证据之前,就通过法律将它视为非法而加以废止。 [23:14.64]A moratorium on further research into human cloning might make sense, [23:17.21]为了能心平气和地思考克隆人类所引发的严肃问题, [23:19.79]in order to consider calmly the grave questions it raises. [23:22.18]而对克隆人类的进一步研究工作做一些推迟是很有意义的。 [23:24.58]If the moratorium is then lifted, [23:26.03]如果这种推迟结束, [23:27.49]human cloning should remain a research activity for an extended period. [23:30.16]克隆人类应该仍然是一个长期的研究活动。 [23:32.82]And if is ever attempted, [23:33.65]并且,如果真的要克隆人类, [23:34.48]it should--and no doubt will--take place only with careful scrutiny and layers of legal oversight. [23:38.29]也应该——而且毫不疑问将——在仔细详实的查验和法律的层层监督下,才能发生。 [23:42.11]Most important, [23:43.08]最重要的是, [23:44.05]human cloning should be governed by the same laws that now protect human rights. [23:46.86]就像人权有法律保护一样,人类克隆权也应该有相应的法律来加以保护。 [23:49.67]A world not safe for cloned humans would be a world not safe for the rest of us. [23:53.57]一个对克隆人类来说不安全的世界,对于我们这些被正常生育下来的人来说,也是不安全的。 [23:57.48]New Words [23:58.16]单词 [23:58.85]adoption n [23:59.86]收养,领养 [24:00.86]atrocity n [24:02.02]暴行 [24:03.17]breeding n [24:03.94]繁殖 [24:04.72]clone v [24:05.63]无性繁殖,克隆 [24:06.55]cloning n [24:07.47]无性繁殖,克隆 [24:08.39]disgust n & v [24:09.45]1)厌恶 2)使厌恶 [24:10.51]eradicate v [24:11.43]摆脱,消灭 [24:12.35]ethicist n [24:13.68]伦理学家,道德学家 [24:15.01]eugenics n [24:16.07]优生学 [24:17.14]extended adj [24:18.32]延长的,延续的 [24:19.51]fertilization n [24:20.66]受精 [24:21.82]immeasurably adv [24:23.15]无法计量地,无限地 [24:24.48]impregnate v [24:25.63]使怀孕 [24:26.78]infertile adj [24:27.97]1)不孕的 2)不肥沃的,贫瘠的 [24:29.16]layer n [24:30.26]1)层次,层面 2)一层 [24:31.36]moratorium n [24:32.42]暂停(活动) [24:33.48]outlaw v [24:34.49]禁止,取缔 [24:35.50]oversight n [24:36.32]监督,看管 [24:37.15]reproduce v [24:38.12]1)生育,繁殖 2)复制,重做 [24:39.10]repulsive adj [24:40.28]令人厌恶的 [24:41.47]scenario n [24:42.57]脚本,剧情说明 [24:43.67]scrutiny n [24:44.82]详尽的查验 [24:45.97]theologian n [24:46.94]神学家,神学研究者 [24:47.92]twisted adj [24:49.10]扭曲的 [24:50.29]unnerve v [24:51.12]使紧张不安,使心慌意乱 [24:51.95]vitro [24:52.78]在体外,在试管内 [24:53.60]warp v [24:54.76]使(性格等)不正常,使乖戾 [24:55.91]How the Gene Test Can Affect Your Insurance [24:57.94]基因检查如何影响你的保险 [24:59.98]1 Jamie Stephenson has seen first-hand what modern genetic science can do for a family. [25:03.31]杰米·斯蒂芬森已经亲身经历了现代基因科学能给一个家庭带来什么。 [25:06.64]When her son David was 2 years old, [25:08.06]当她的儿子戴维两岁的时候, [25:09.48]a pediatrician noticed signs of mental retardation and developmental delays. [25:12.56]一位儿科医生注意到他有精神呆滞和发育迟缓的迹象。 [25:15.64]A lab test confirmed the diagnosis, [25:17.24]实验检查证实了医生的诊断, [25:18.84]and the Stephensons spent several years learning to live with it. [25:20.96]但是斯蒂芬森一家经过几年才接受了这一现实。 [25:23.09]When David was 6,he visited a neurologist, [25:25.21]当戴维六岁时,他去看了一位神经科医生, [25:27.34]who scribbled"hereditary mental retardation"on an insurance-company claim form. [25:30.61]这位医生在保险公司索赔表上写下了“遗传性精神呆滞”。 [25:33.89]The company responded promptly-by canceling coverage for the entire family of six. [25:37.31]保险公司做出了快速反应——取消了这一家六口人的保险险别。 [25:40.73]There is no medical treatment for his mental retardation, [25:42.67]对于这种精神呆滞疾病,医学上还没有对症治疗的方法。 [25:44.62]and none of David's siblings had been diagnosed with the condition. [25:46.74]而且,戴维的兄弟、姊妹都没有患这种玻 [25:48.86]The company didn't care," [25:49.78]“保险公司可不管这些,” [25:50.70]Stephenson says. [25:51.38]斯蒂芬森说。 [25:52.07]"They just saw a positive genetic test and said,'You're out'". [25:54.70]“他们只是看到了一个基因检查的阳性结果,然后说,‘你们不再享有医疗保险。’” [25:57.32]2 No one would argue that genetic tests are worthless. [25:59.48]没有人会同意基因检查毫无用处。 [26:01.64]Used properly,they can give people unprecedented power over their lives. [26:04.49]基因检查,如果能被适当地使用,将使人们对他们的生命具有前所未有的控制力。 [26:07.33]Prospective parents who discover they're silent carriers of the gene for a disease like Tay-Sachs, [26:10.93]未来的父母们,当他们发现自己是某种基因遗传疾性,比如 [26:14.53]which causes death by the age of 3, [26:16.28]家族性黑蒙性白痴的隐性携带者时, [26:18.02]can make better-informed decisions about whether and how to have kids. [26:20.51]可以在了解更多信息的情况下决定是否或怎样去生小孩。 [26:22.99]Some genetic maladies can be managed through medication and lifestyle changes once they're identified. [26:26.54]有些基因缺陷性疾病可以在确诊之后,通过药物治疗和生活方式的改变而加以控制。 [26:30.08]And while knowing that you're at special risk for cancer may be an emotional burden, [26:32.98]但是知道你有极大的可能患癌症,会成为一种精神负担; [26:35.88]It can also alert you to the need for intensive monitoring. [26:38.00]但这也同时也警示你做深入的自我调整。 [26:40.13]3 The catch is that no one can guarantee the privacy of genetic information. [26:42.95]但是一个潜在的令人棘手的问题:没有人能够保证个人基因信息的绝对保密。 [26:45.78]Out-side of large group plans, [26:47.29]除了大的团体计划外, [26:48.80]insurance companies often scour people's medical records before extending coverage. [26:51.85]保险公司在决定保险范围前常常会搜索客户的健康记录。 [26:54.89]And though employers face some restrictions, [26:56.69]虽然对雇主要看个人健康记录有一定的限制, [26:58.49]virtually any company with a benefits program can get access to workers' health data. [27:01.42]但是事实上,任何有赢利项目的公司都可以得到工人健康状况的资料。 [27:04.36]So can schools,adoption agencies and the military. [27:06.93]学校、领养机构和军队机构也有这样的权利。 [27:09.50]4 How often is genetic information used against people? [27:11.75]又有多少时候基因信息会带给人们不快呢? [27:14.00]No one knows,but there are signs that discrimination is fairly common. [27:16.76]没有人知道。但是种种迹象表明基因歧视相当普遍。 [27:19.51]In one recent study, [27:20.63]在最近的一次调查中, [27:21.74]more than 200 instances were documented in which people experienced genetic discrimination. [27:25.25]资料显示不少于200个人曾经经历过基因歧视。 [27:28.76]Many participants told of losing their health and life insurance. [27:31.01]很多被调查者谈到他们已丧失了健康和人寿保险。 [27:33.26]But that wasn't their only problem. [27:34.60]但是,这还不是他们所面临的唯一麻烦。 [27:35.93]One respondent was denied a job selling insurance after he disclosed that he had a hereditary disease that can be treated for about $ 1,200 a year. [27:41.69]有一位被调查者说她患有一种遗传性疾病,每年花1,200美元可以治愈,她因此而失去了卖保险的工作。 [27:47.45]A social worker who had excelled during her first year at a Wisconsin healthcare company [27:50.26]有一位社会工作者在威斯康星医疗保险公司的第一年,干得非常好, [27:53.06]was quickly forced out after mentioning that her uncle had Huntington's, [27:55.55]但是当她提及她有一位叔叔患有抗廷斯顿舞蹈症, [27:58.03]a brain disease that victims' offspring have a 50 percent of developing. [28:01.07]一种患者后代有百分之五十的机率患病的脑疾, [28:04.12]A woman in the early stages of Huntington's disease was unable to place her child with a private adoption agency. [28:08.31]一位妇女患家族性黑蒙性白痴病,已具有该病的早期症状,她找不到一家能收养她孩子的私人育儿院。 [28:12.50]A public agency took the child, [28:13.87]一个公立育儿院收养了这个小孩。 [28:15.24]eventually matching her with a couple who had previously been rejected themselves [28:17.87]这个小孩子最后由一对夫妇收养,这对夫妇本来曾想收养孩子,但被拒绝, [28:20.50]beacause one partner carried the Huntington's gene. [28:22.53]因为夫妇中的一位是抗廷斯顿基因的隐性携带者。 [28:24.56]"It's a stark commentary on how society regards people at risk,"they said. [28:27.50]“这便是这个社会如何对待有基因缺陷公司的!”他们说。 [28:30.43]5 Not surprisingly,people from high-risk families have come to fear tests almost as much as the disease. [28:34.34]毫不奇怪,有家族性遗传病病史的成员,已经开始像害怕疾病本身一样害怕基因检查。 [28:38.24]It is estimated that only 15 percent of the people with a Huntington's afflicted parent choose to learn their own status. [28:42.47]据估计,在父亲患有抗廷斯顿病的人群中,只有百分之五十的人希望知晓他们自己的健康状况。 [28:46.70]Discrimination isn't their only concern; [28:48.50]怕遭受基因歧视并不是他们唯一的担心, [28:50.30]virtually everyone testing positive for the Huntington's gene develops symptoms during middle age, [28:53.81]事实上每个抗廷斯顿基因检查曾阳性的个体,都会在中年时期出现抗廷斯顿病的症状。 [28:57.32]and doctors can do nothing to help. [28:58.66]而且医生对这些症状束手无策。 [28:59.99]But people who might benefit from genetic tests are almost as leery. [29:02.42]但是那些可能会从基因检查中受益的人们对此几乎持同样的谨慎态度。 [29:04.85]When researchers surveyed 279 people from families plagued by lung cancer, [29:08.21]当研究人员对二百七十九位有肺癌家庭史的人们进行调查时, [29:11.58]only 43 percent wanted to have gene tests that might gauge their own susceptibility. [29:14.86]只有百分之四十三的人希望做基因测试以弄清他们患有肺癌的可能性。 [29:18.13]Many said the prospect of discrimination scared them off. [29:20.29]很多人说他们不愿遭受基因歧视,所以拒绝基因检查。 [29:22.45]6 Besides depriving people of potentially useful information,the fear of discrimination can hamper scientific progress. [29:27.29]对因为有基因缺陷而受到歧视的担忧,不仅使人们不能获得潜在的有用的信息,还将阻碍科学的进步。 [29:32.14]Barbara Weber,a geneticist, [29:33.65]芭芭拉·韦伯,一位基因学家, [29:35.16]often asks those who learn they carry the Huntington's gene to take part in confidential follow-up studies. [29:38.98]经常请求那些抗廷斯顿基因的隐性携带者们参加保密的随访研究。 [29:42.79]She wants to know which strategies are most effective for preserving their health. [29:45.78]她想知道什么办法能最有效地保证他们的健康。 [29:48.77]"We have the tools to answer these questions,"she says. [29:50.71]“我们有办法回答这些问题,”她说。 [29:52.66]"All they have to do is tell us how they're doing every six months." [29:54.91]“他们所需要做的只是每六个月一次来告诉我们他们正在干什么。” [29:57.16]Yet 75 percent of the people she approaches say no. [29:59.41]但是,有百分之七十五的人拒绝了她的要求。 [30:01.66]7 The federal government is now taking steps to make genetic information less threatening. [30:04.84]联邦政府现在正在采取措施,使基因信息不再那么可怕。 [30:08.03]A recently enacted health insurance act bars insurers from treating genetic mutations as [30:11.54]一项最近实施的健康保险法案规定:禁止将基因缺陷当作 [30:15.05]"pre-existing conditions"unless they are causing illness. 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20121224/99479.html